The splendour and misery of urban life

Movie clip on urbanization, industrialization, city living conditions, health problems, infrastructure organization and the development of public services at the end of the 19th century. (Time: 3 min 30 s )

At the end of the 19th century urbanization intensified. Cities and their factories were drawing people from the countryside like magnets: the land could no longer support all of them. In addition, immigrants were pouring into Canada from all over, hoping to start a new life.

The newcomers ended up in neighbourhoods that, on the one hand, had made no preparations to receive them and, on the other, were unprepared for the industrial and commercial expansion that was taking place there. People were forced to live in filthy tenements in neighbourhoods polluted by the many new factories. Unsafe drinking water and impure milk aggravated their health problems, creating conditions for the spread of disease. The death rate rose, one sign that living conditions were on the decline.

Many reacted with horror to the degradation of the urban environment and the real, or imagined, dangers associated with it. Among them was the Montreal reformer Sir H. B. Ames, author of the famous report The City Below the Hill. Its alarmist tone and apocalyptic illustrations of Montreal and its living conditions was evidence of the scale of the changes brought on by urbanization and industrialization. But the relentless criticisms of observers like Ames eventually pressured municipal authorities into cleaning up working-class neighbourhoods and improving the living conditions of their inhabitants.

Corrective measures were undertaken in Montreal and other large cities, including the organization of communication and transportation networks, the creation of systems for providing clean drinking water and removing waste water, the adoption of building standards, the improvement of sanitation measures and the introduction of vaccination programs. And because cities had been cast as evil for harbouring filth and disease, people began calling for places where they could go to commune with nature. Montreal opened numerous public squares, gardens and parks, as well as playgrounds. These were meant to not only improve the appearance of the city but also provide people with places to go for relaxation and recreation.

At the time it was not easy for the new arrivals to adapt to urban life. Nonetheless, they benefited from the many transformations taking place in urban infrastructure and services. These fundamentally altered both the appearance and organization of Canadian cities.

McCord Museum
19th Century
© 2007, McCord Museum of Canadian History. All Rights Reserved.


At the end of the 19th century urbanization intensified. Cities and their factories were drawing people from the countryside like magnets: the land could no longer support all of them. In addition, immigrants were pouring into Canada from all over, hoping to start a new life.

The newcomers ended up in neighbourhoods that, on the one hand, had made no preparations to receive them and, on the other, were unprepared for the industrial and commercial expansion that was taking place there. People were forced to live in filthy tenements in neighbourhoods polluted by the many new factories. Unsafe drinking water and impure milk aggravated their health problems, creating conditions for the spread of disease. The death rate rose, one sign that living conditions were on the decline.

Many reacted with horror to the degradation of the urban environment and the real, or imagined, dangers associated with it. Among them was the Montreal reformer Sir H. B. Ames, author of the famous report The City Below the Hill. Its alarmist tone and apocalyptic illustrations of Montreal and its living conditions was evidence of the scale of the changes brought on by urbanization and Read More

At the end of the 19th century urbanization intensified. Cities and their factories were drawing people from the countryside like magnets: the land could no longer support all of them. In addition, immigrants were pouring into Canada from all over, hoping to start a new life.

The newcomers ended up in neighbourhoods that, on the one hand, had made no preparations to receive them and, on the other, were unprepared for the industrial and commercial expansion that was taking place there. People were forced to live in filthy tenements in neighbourhoods polluted by the many new factories. Unsafe drinking water and impure milk aggravated their health problems, creating conditions for the spread of disease. The death rate rose, one sign that living conditions were on the decline.

Many reacted with horror to the degradation of the urban environment and the real, or imagined, dangers associated with it. Among them was the Montreal reformer Sir H. B. Ames, author of the famous report The City Below the Hill. Its alarmist tone and apocalyptic illustrations of Montreal and its living conditions was evidence of the scale of the changes brought on by urbanization and industrialization. But the relentless criticisms of observers like Ames eventually pressured municipal authorities into cleaning up working-class neighbourhoods and improving the living conditions of their inhabitants.

Corrective measures were undertaken in Montreal and other large cities, including the organization of communication and transportation networks, the creation of systems for providing clean drinking water and removing waste water, the adoption of building standards, the improvement of sanitation measures and the introduction of vaccination programs. And because cities had been cast as evil for harbouring filth and disease, people began calling for places where they could go to commune with nature. Montreal opened numerous public squares, gardens and parks, as well as playgrounds. These were meant to not only improve the appearance of the city but also provide people with places to go for relaxation and recreation.

At the time it was not easy for the new arrivals to adapt to urban life. Nonetheless, they benefited from the many transformations taking place in urban infrastructure and services. These fundamentally altered both the appearance and organization of Canadian cities.

REFERENCES

Ames, Herbert Brown. The City Below the Hill: A Sociological Study of a Portion of the City of Montreal. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972 (1897).

Artibise, Alan, F. J. "Prairie Urban Development 1870-1930." Canadian Historical Association, Historical Booklet No. 34, 1981 [online].
[http://www.collectionscanada.ca/cha-shc/002013-119.01-e.php?&booklet_id=H-34&page_sequence_nbr=1&browse=yes&&PHPSESSID=76734eb18901c1b9bb888d4d8e0bd40a]  (page consulted May 8, 2007).

Bliss, Michael. Plague: How Smallpox Devastated Montreal. Toronto: HarperCollins, 1991.

Bradbury, Bettina. “Pigs, Cows, and Boarders: Non-Wage Forms of Survival among Montreal Families, 1861-1891,” Labour/ Le travail 14 (1984): p. 9-46.

Cadotte, Marcel. “Epidemic.” The Canadian Encyclopedia [online].
[http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0002629] (page consulted May 8, 2007).

Careless, J.M.S. "The Rise of Cities in Canada before 1914." Canadian Historical Association, Historical Booklet No. 32, 1977 [online].
[http://www.collectionscanada.ca/002/013/002013-119.01-e.php?&booklet_id=H-32&page_sequence_nbr=1&browse=yes&&PHPSESSID=51a11e1588e2f42108f0161b585b0264] (page consulted May 8, 2007). 

Copp, Terry. The Anatomy of Poverty: The Condition of the Working Class in Montreal, 1897-1929. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1974.

Couturier, Jacques-Paul. “Prohiber ou contrôler ? L’application de l’Acte de tempérance du Canada à Moncton, N.-B., 1881-1896.” Acadiensis XVII, 2 (spring 1988).

Dagenais, Michèle. Faire et fuir la ville. Espaces publics de culture et de loisirs à Montréal et Toronto aux XIXe et XXe siècles. Sainte-Foy: Presses de l’Université Laval, 2006.

De Lottinville, Peter. “Joe Beef of Montreal: Working-Class Culture and the Tavern, 1869-1889.” Labour/ Le travail 8/9 (1981/1982): 9-40.

Gournay, Isabelle and France Vanlaethem (eds.). Montreal Metropolis, 1880-1930. Toronto: Stoddard/CCA, 1998.

Mackay, Donald. The Square Mile: Merchant Princes of Montreal. Vancouver/Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre, 1987.

Historical Atlas of Canada. Vol. III : Addressing the Twentieth Century, 1891-1961, Montreal: Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 1990 : The emergence of the urban system, plate 10; Industrial development in Montréal , plate 14; The social landscape of Montréal, 1901, plate 30; Winnipeg: A divided City, plate 31.


© 2007, McCord Museum of Canadian History. All Rights Reserved.

M930.50.5.142 :The New Way: 300 pairs a day, 1880

Image regarding the transition in the shoemaking sector from craft production to industrial production. Hyperlink to display the full record on the museum's site in a new window

John Henry Walker
1880
M930.50.5.142
© 2007, McCord Museum of Canadian History. All Rights Reserved.


Making their appearance in the 1850s in the shoemaking sector, machine tools characterized the transition from craft production to industrial production. They contributed to increased productivity and transformed work habits.

The craftsman shoemaker studied every facet of his trade during a variable period of apprenticeship. However, the division of tasks and the use of machines made it possible to employ workers who now only make one part of the shoe - always the same one.

Wage labour was accompanied by set working hours and a transformation of the rhythm of daily life. An absence from work could lead to a fine, or even a jail sentence.

What
Various sorts of machines were used to prepare the leather, assemble the pieces and sew them together. The work could be dangerous because of the lack of safety instructions.

Where
The transition from craft production to industrial production involved a change in the workplace. Footwear industry workers no longer worked in craft workshops, but in factories.

When
In the 1880s, mechanization permitted the mass product Read More
Making their appearance in the 1850s in the shoemaking sector, machine tools characterized the transition from craft production to industrial production. They contributed to increased productivity and transformed work habits.

The craftsman shoemaker studied every facet of his trade during a variable period of apprenticeship. However, the division of tasks and the use of machines made it possible to employ workers who now only make one part of the shoe - always the same one.

Wage labour was accompanied by set working hours and a transformation of the rhythm of daily life. An absence from work could lead to a fine, or even a jail sentence.

What
Various sorts of machines were used to prepare the leather, assemble the pieces and sew them together. The work could be dangerous because of the lack of safety instructions.

Where
The transition from craft production to industrial production involved a change in the workplace. Footwear industry workers no longer worked in craft workshops, but in factories.

When
In the 1880s, mechanization permitted the mass production of shoes at a cost about 50% lower than 30 years before.

Who
John Henry Walker, a craftsman engraver (1831-1899), worried at the end of his life about the possible disappearance of his trade because of advances in reproduction technology.

© 2007, McCord Museum of Canadian History. All Rights Reserved.

M994.104.1.3.161:City water under the Microscope

Image regarding the poor quality of the water in Montreal circa 1870, at the time when Pasteur’s work on bacteriology was attracting attention. Hyperlink to display the full record on the museum's site in a new window

Unknown
1870
M994.104.1.3.161
© 2007, McCord Museum of Canadian History. All Rights Reserved.


This image from 1870, illustrating the noxious agents in the water in Montreal, was used in a campaign in favour of water filtration.

In Montreal, the quality of water was always suspect at the end of the 19th century. The only means of water purification provided by the municipal water supply system consisted of letting the water settle in huge reservoirs. More effective under such conditions, filtration removed heavy, coarse substances from the water and eliminated germs and microbes.

The early work by Pasteur on bacteria, in the 1870s, let to the conclusion that infectious illnesses and epidemics were not caused by fumes from cesspools and sewers, but rather from contaminated water. These discoveries demonstrated the importance of purifying water intended for human consumption.

What
The illustration shows the various organic and inorganic substances observed in Montreal's water in 1870 by members of the Montreal Microscope Club.

Where
In 1856, Montreal finally stopped drawing water close to the city's main sewer after a major renovation of the municipal water supply network.
Read More
This image from 1870, illustrating the noxious agents in the water in Montreal, was used in a campaign in favour of water filtration.

In Montreal, the quality of water was always suspect at the end of the 19th century. The only means of water purification provided by the municipal water supply system consisted of letting the water settle in huge reservoirs. More effective under such conditions, filtration removed heavy, coarse substances from the water and eliminated germs and microbes.

The early work by Pasteur on bacteria, in the 1870s, let to the conclusion that infectious illnesses and epidemics were not caused by fumes from cesspools and sewers, but rather from contaminated water. These discoveries demonstrated the importance of purifying water intended for human consumption.

What
The illustration shows the various organic and inorganic substances observed in Montreal's water in 1870 by members of the Montreal Microscope Club.

Where
In 1856, Montreal finally stopped drawing water close to the city's main sewer after a major renovation of the municipal water supply network.

When
Canadian municipalities only understood in 1894 that the deterioration in the quality of drinking water was due to waste water being discharged into waterways.

Who
The French biologist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) discovered that water was an ideal environment for the proliferation of bacteria.

© 2007, McCord Museum of Canadian History. All Rights Reserved.

M992X.5.82 : Montreal's Night-Mayor on his Ghostly Rounds

Cartoon decrying Montrealers’ terrible living conditions, high mortality rate, appalling public hygiene and infectious disease epidemics in the 19th century. Hyperlink to display the full record on the museum's site in a new window

Henri Julien
1875
M992X.5.82
© 2007, McCord Museum of Canadian History. All Rights Reserved.


During the 19th century, infectious diseases claimed many victims in Montreal. The city's factories, like many workers' lodgings, were often breeding grounds for disease.

This caricature sarcastically depicts the deplorable state of health of Montrealers. Its mockery targets the municipal health organization, which was clearly not known for its effectiveness. Since 1870, a committee of police and health officials oversaw sanitation in the city of Montreal, yet it met only two or three times each year. Moreover, the two doctors sitting on the committee had little influence because they never attended meetings. It was only in 1876 that a better organized health bureau was finally set up; it met twice a month and was composed of nine aldermen, nine citizen representatives and six doctors.

Before the discoveries that Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) made in the area of bacteriology during the 1880s, it was believed that epidemics and disease were caused by vapours known as "miasmas." People simply did not know that a number of infectious diseases like cholera, dysentery and typhoid were caused by bacteria that could propagate in food and water.
Read More

During the 19th century, infectious diseases claimed many victims in Montreal. The city's factories, like many workers' lodgings, were often breeding grounds for disease.

This caricature sarcastically depicts the deplorable state of health of Montrealers. Its mockery targets the municipal health organization, which was clearly not known for its effectiveness. Since 1870, a committee of police and health officials oversaw sanitation in the city of Montreal, yet it met only two or three times each year. Moreover, the two doctors sitting on the committee had little influence because they never attended meetings. It was only in 1876 that a better organized health bureau was finally set up; it met twice a month and was composed of nine aldermen, nine citizen representatives and six doctors.

Before the discoveries that Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) made in the area of bacteriology during the 1880s, it was believed that epidemics and disease were caused by vapours known as "miasmas." People simply did not know that a number of infectious diseases like cholera, dysentery and typhoid were caused by bacteria that could propagate in food and water.

What
This caricature shows the grim reaper with his scythe aboard a chariot bearing a coffin. Around the chariot float vapours baptized "Miasma," "Dysentery," "Smallpox," "Typhus," "Cholera" and "Fever."

Where
A factory in the background gives off vapours that symbolize different infectious diseases. In the late 19th century, hygiene was sometimes lacking in factories and other manufacturing establishments, as well as in people's homes.

When
In 1854, cholera killed more than 5 000 people throughout British North America. In 1847, a horrible typhus epidemic brought over by British immigrants killed thousands. In Montreal, more than 3 800 people died from the disease. Finally, between 1872 and 1885 the city was hit by successive waves of a smallpox epidemic.

Who
In 1875, two men occupied the position of mayor of Montreal in turns : Aldis Bernard (1810-1876) whose term extended from 1873 to 1875, and William H. Hingston (1829-1907), elected for the period from 1875 to 1877.

REFERENCES

Gaumer, Benoît, Georges Desrosiers and Othmar Keel. Histoire du Service de santé de la Ville de Montréal, 1865-1975. Ste. Foy: Éditions de l'IQRC, 2002.

Young, Brian. Respectable Burial: Montreal's Mount Royal Cemetery. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2003.

 


© 2007, McCord Museum of Canadian History. All Rights Reserved.

M993X.5.1135: Montreal. St. George (Mayor Hingston) and the dragon (small pox), 1876

Cartoon on the efforts of William Hales Hingston in Montreal, as a physician fighting smallpox epidemics between 1872 and 1885 and as mayor, to reform the city’s public health system. Hyperlink to display the full record on the museum's site in a new window

1876
M993X.5.1135
© 2007, McCord Museum of Canadian History. All Rights Reserved.


Between 1872 and 1885 the city of Montreal was struck by a series of smallpox epidemics. William Hales Hingston (1829-1907), a doctor and surgeon by training, played a leading role in caring for the victims. From 1875 to 1877, while serving as Montreal’s mayor, he sought to improve living conditions and thus the health of Montrealers. He reformed the city’s sanitation system in 1876, notably by making the health department a permanent organization.

In the late 1870s the discoveries of Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) in the field of bacteriology had a major impact on the treatment and prevention of disease. During the smallpox epidemic of 1885, it became obligatory for Montrealers to be vaccinated. But because at the time not all doctors had mastered the techniques of immunization, the smallpox vaccination sometimes actually spread the disease. With some doctors refusing to administer the vaccination, a riot broke out. Hingston was an outspoken advocate of public vaccinations.

This cartoon shows the mayor of Montreal, William Hales Hingston (1829-1907), as St. George. According to legend, St. George was an officer of the Roman army who fought a drag Read More

Between 1872 and 1885 the city of Montreal was struck by a series of smallpox epidemics. William Hales Hingston (1829-1907), a doctor and surgeon by training, played a leading role in caring for the victims. From 1875 to 1877, while serving as Montreal’s mayor, he sought to improve living conditions and thus the health of Montrealers. He reformed the city’s sanitation system in 1876, notably by making the health department a permanent organization.

In the late 1870s the discoveries of Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) in the field of bacteriology had a major impact on the treatment and prevention of disease. During the smallpox epidemic of 1885, it became obligatory for Montrealers to be vaccinated. But because at the time not all doctors had mastered the techniques of immunization, the smallpox vaccination sometimes actually spread the disease. With some doctors refusing to administer the vaccination, a riot broke out. Hingston was an outspoken advocate of public vaccinations.

This cartoon shows the mayor of Montreal, William Hales Hingston (1829-1907), as St. George. According to legend, St. George was an officer of the Roman army who fought a dragon that was terrifying the inhabitants of a city in Libya and threatening to kill the king’s daughter. St. George is generally shown seated on a horse, slaying the dragon. In this cartoon by Henri Julien (1852-1908), the dragon symbolizes smallpox.

What
Smallpox is an infectious disease spread by droplets from the nose and throat and by dried viral particles on blankets and clothing. Before the advent of the smallpox vaccination, this dreaded disease, also known as variola, could kill from 30 to 40 percent of those who contracted it.

Where
In the late 19th century the population of the city of Montreal shot up, mostly as a result of industrialization. The city had a high mortality rate, due in large part to its poor sanitary conditions.

When
In Quebec responsibility for the fight against disease fell to municipalities before 1887 and the creation of the Council of Hygiene and Public Health, a provincial body.
Who
Hingston, one of the best known surgeons in Canada at this time, received numerous honorary awards towards the end of his career, both in Canada and abroad. He was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1895.

REFERENCES

Bernier, Jacques. “Disease, Medecine and Society in Canada: A Historical Overview,” Canadian Historical Association Booklet, vol. 63 [online] [www.collectionscanada.ca/cha-shc/002013-119.01-e.php?&booklet_id=H-63&page_id_nbr=4672219&interval=50&&PHPSESSID=n546jm98b2eofmspl18as33ca] (page consulted April 24, 2007).

Cadotte, Marcel. “Epidemic,” “Smallpox,” The Canadian Encyclopedia [online]
[www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0002629] (page consulted April 24, 2007).

Desrosiers, Georges. “Public Health,” The Canadian Encyclopedia [online] [http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=F1ARTF0009515].
(page consulted April 24, 2007).

Goulet, Denis and Othmar Keel. “Hingston, Sir William Hales,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography [online]
[http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=40906&query=Hingston] (page consulted April 24, 2007).

“Saint Georges,” Musée national du Moyen Âge - Thermes de Cluny for children [online] [http://www.culture.gouv.fr/cluny/qui/legende/georges.htm] (page consulted April 24, 2007).

“William Hales Hingston 1875-1877,” “Democracy in Montreal, from 1830 to the present,” Archives of Montreal [online] [www2.ville.montreal.qc.ca/archives/democratie/democratie_en/expo/maires/hingston/index.shtm] (page consulted 24 April 2007).


© 2007, McCord Museum of Canadian History. All Rights Reserved.

M993X.5.1022: Some suggestions to the Montreal fire committee, the practicability of which is self-evident

Cartoon on the uselessness of the equipment of the Montreal fire department for fighting fires in the new four-, five- or six-storey buildings. Hyperlink to display the full record on the museum's site in a new window

Edward Jump
1873-04-12
M993X.5.1022
© 2007, McCord Museum of Canadian History. All Rights Reserved.


There were numerous fires in Montreal in the 19th century. The huge fire of 1852 was especially devastating: it raged for 26 hours, consuming almost half of the buildings in the city and leaving some 9,000 people homeless.

Montreal’s urban architecture changed dramatically in the second half of the century. Numerous four- , five- and six-storey buildings were built downtown, with the result that the fire department’s equipment became outdated. The fire chief noted this in his annual report for 1867, urging action on the issue, but his alarm call was ignored.

On March 18, 1873, fire broke out at the St. James Hotel, a five-storey building. Firefighters couldn’t reach the highest floors because their ladders weren’t long enough! Five people died in the fire, much to public indignation. This cartoon was published in April, after the disaster. It wasn’t until after this hotel fire that the city allocated $15, 000 to purchase new equipment, including a new aerial ladder called a “Skinner.”

What:
Reacting to the absurdity of the situation and the ineffectiveness of the fire department& Read More

There were numerous fires in Montreal in the 19th century. The huge fire of 1852 was especially devastating: it raged for 26 hours, consuming almost half of the buildings in the city and leaving some 9,000 people homeless.

Montreal’s urban architecture changed dramatically in the second half of the century. Numerous four- , five- and six-storey buildings were built downtown, with the result that the fire department’s equipment became outdated. The fire chief noted this in his annual report for 1867, urging action on the issue, but his alarm call was ignored.

On March 18, 1873, fire broke out at the St. James Hotel, a five-storey building. Firefighters couldn’t reach the highest floors because their ladders weren’t long enough! Five people died in the fire, much to public indignation. This cartoon was published in April, after the disaster. It wasn’t until after this hotel fire that the city allocated $15, 000 to purchase new equipment, including a new aerial ladder called a “Skinner.”

What:
Reacting to the absurdity of the situation and the ineffectiveness of the fire department’s equipment, the cartoonist imagined and drew the most ludicrous ladders.

Where
In Montreal, public services such as fire prevention developed in the 19th century, a period of major population growth largely due to industrialization.

When

This cartoon was published in the weekly The Canadian Illustrated News on April 12, 1873. The article accompanying it recommended that the Montreal Fire Department follow the example of its German counterparts, which at the time apparently used very efficient ladders.

Who
It was not until 1863 that Montreal’s fire department, which was created in 1841, hired professional, full-time firefighters. There were also three units of volunteer firefighters providing support.

REFERENCES

Draper, D. W. and Frank Quinn. “Water Distribution System,” The Canadian Encyclopedia [online] [http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0008466] (page consulted April 24, 2007).

Laurent, Jeannine. Policiers et pompiers en devoir, 1851-1977. Sainte-Foy: Publications du Québec, 2005.

Linteau, Paul André. Histoire de Montréal depuis la Confédération. Montreal: Boréal, 2000.

Redfern, Bruce D. The Montreal Fire Department in the Nineteenth Century. It’s Transformation from a Volunteer to a Professional Organization. Master’s thesis, Concordia University, 1993.

Robert, Jean-Claude. Atlas historique de Montréal. Montreal: Art global : Libre expression, 1994.

“Au feu! Au feu!,” "Montréal Clic, No. 5,” Centre d’histoire de Montréal [online] [http://ville.montreal.qc.ca/portal/page?_pageid=2497,3090352&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL] (page consulted April 24, 2007).


© 2007, McCord Museum of Canadian History. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

The activity on the learning object The Splendour and Misery of Urban Life ties into the Québec Education Program History and Citizenship Education in Secondary 3 (1st year of Cycle Two, Secondary). It aims to enable students to interpret the founding of Canadian federation from the point of view of urbanization, using the specific example of Montreal, the Canadian metropolis in which great social and territorial transformations were initiated by industrialization. The activity is based largely on old cartoons and other drawings from the 1870s and 1880s.

The educational aim is “to enable students to exercise critical, ethical and aesthetic judgment with respect to the media,” and in particular to enhance their “awareness of the place and influence of the different media in his/her daily life and in society,” as well as their “understanding of media representations of reality.”

The targeted educational outcomes are:

  • Competency 2: Interprets social phenomena using the historical method.
  • Methodology: Interpretation of an iconographic document.
  • Social phenomena: Formation of the Canadian federation.
  • Concept: Urbanization.
  • Historical knowledge: Urban development, living and working conditions.
  • Cross-curricula competency 1: Uses information.
  • Cross-curricula competency 4: Uses creativity.
  • Cross-curricula competency 6: Uses information and communication technologies.

From:
Québec, ministère de l’Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport [MÉLS]. History and Citizenship Education, Quebec Education Program, Secondary Cycle Two, Validation Document, 2005.


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