The entire set of methods and techniques that use microorganisms, i.e. plant cells and their constituents, to modify or transform products. The pharmaceutical and agri-food industries make use of advances in this field, particularly in the production of medicine and foods.

Genetic (cell) manipulation

An operation that consists of transporting a strand of DNA, along with its genes, from a cell nucleus of one individual to that of another. This intervention makes it possible to transfer to the receiver characteristics it did not previously have but that were possessed by the donor.


Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the bearer of genetic information and is entrusted with transmitting from generation to generation a whole series of characteristics that determine the internal or external structure of living organisms. DNA is found in the nuclei of all living cells.


A type of tumour that generally forms in the testicles or ovaries. The name (from the Greek teratos, or "monster") alludes to the tumour's monstrous appearance, for it can contain teeth, hair, skin and veins, in addition to having its own vascular or nervous system.


A group of identical cells arranged in such a way as to perform the same function. There are four types: epithelial (forming a protective coating on the surface of mucous membranes), connective (including the blood, bones and cartilage), muscle and nerve.
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