Answer Sheet for Student Handout

1 a)
-cheap to feed
-lays eggs year-round or almost year-round (this only happens with domesticated birds)
-always lays eggs in a predictable place
-lays a lot of eggs
-can be killed and eaten once it gets too old to lay enough eggs
-doesn't fly away (some birds had their wings clipped, or pinioned, for this reason; archaeologists sometimes see evidence of this clipping in the wing bones)
-can cope with living in a confined space
b) pig

2 a) Cats kept mice and rat populations under control. These rodents were a very dangerous threat to the grains and root vegetables that settlers stored after the harvest. If the mice and rats ate the stored foods, the settlers wouldn’t have any to eat until the next harvest and faced starvation. Settlers also used dogs to control rodents and deter predators.
b) The cat's sharp teeth are clearly those of a carnivore and are excellent for sinking into fleeing prey and tearing flesh. Humans have both sharp canine teeth and grinding cheek teeth—we are evolutionary omnivores!

3 a) Settlers, who expended lots of calories working hard physically and sometimes in very cold temperatures, knew that marrow is a nutritious and high-energy food containing fat, vitamins and minerals. Today we don’t generally work as hard and must control our fat intake. Settlers couldn’t afford to waste such a nutritious part of the animal because it cost a lot of time and effort to raise or hunt meat or spend money to buy meat. Many people then and now like the taste of marrow.
b) salting and brining (usually in large barrels), drying, smoking, keeping in cellar or root cellar, freezing, making sausages which would be frozen or smoked

4 a)
-Hindus consider cows sacred and do not eat them.
-No meat is allowed on Fridays in Roman Catholicism (but fish is acceptable).
-No pork is allowed in Judaism. People of the Jewish faith eat only animals with cloven hooves that chew their cud, and certain fish and bird species. The meat must be slaughtered under Kosher standards.
-No pork is allowed in Islam. Muslims eat only meat slaughtered under Islamic standards.
-Some Buddhists do not eat meat.
-Orthodox Brahmins (northern India) and followers of Jainism do not eat meat.
-Wild meat may have contained parasites (it still may today).
-Lactose-intolerance to dairy products. Most settlers in Canada were from northern Europe, so their bodies could process dairy. Some however, like most humans on the planet, may have been lactose-intolerant. This means they can only process the lactose found in dairy during childhood. Once they are older, they suffer gas and stomach upsets whenever they eat significant amounts of dairy products.
-They may have had food allergies.
-They may have been unsure about the safety of wild plants.

5 a)
- wild birds such as Canada geese, ducks, ruffed grouse and passenger pigeons
- fish such as perch and smallmouth bass, probably caught by angling
-The abundance of wild animals fluctuates seasonally. For examplle, birds are often most plentiful or accessible during their spring and fall migrations, fish during their spawning runs, and deer populations fluctuate as they migrate between habitats.
-Their location is not always predictable, so it costs time and effort to find them.
-Then, as now, hunting could be dangerous.

6 a)
-They were considered a delicacy.
-It was another way, like eating marrow, to avoid waste and consume all parts of the animal.
-They could be pickled and thus kept for a long time.
-Probably out of need, settlers didn’t have the same aversion to such foods as people have today.
-ox or cow tongue (considered distasteful by some)
-frog’s legs or tripe (not part of British food heritage that is prevalent in many parts of Canada, considered strange by some) 
-monkeys (not part of British food heritage that is prevalent in many parts of Canada, illegal to eat in Canada, too similar to us)
-insect larvae (not part of British food heritage that is prevalent in many parts of Canada, considered too dirty in their eating habits or too strange)

7 a)
women: cooking, mending clothes, nursing, looking after babies and children, making butter, knitting socks and sweaters, housekeeping, food processing, gardening, making soap and candles; when necessary, women also helped with the farm chores and worked in the fields
men: ploughing, chopping wood, fishing and hunting, clearing land, pulling stumps, burning brush, piling stones, making maple syrup, slaughtering animals, building fences, harvesting wheat, rye and hay crops by sickle or scythe, planting and harvesting potatoes, threshing, trapping, working off the farm to earn money
b) Yes. Only women can breastfeed infants, so this task division was biologically determined. Some heavier tasks such as cutting trees might require great physical strength which most women do not possess. However, most division of labour is just a matter of cultural preference and habit. An example of the flexibility in division of labour is the fact that in lumber camps, the cook was a man simply because there were no women allowed in the camps. Many of today's chefs are men.
c) Many. Feeding animals, cooking, chopping wood, mending clothes, gathering eggs, working in the fields, helping with the harvest; tending cattle and seeking them out when they wander.

8 a) In later years, when the farm was more established, hunting probably became less important as there was enough livestock and crops to feed the family.
-injuries from sharp or heavy farm or kitchen implements
-kicks from the sharp hooves of sheep, pigs, cows or horses
-animal-transmitted diseases such as anthrax
-food poisoning or parasitic infections from contaminated meat or water
-sun stroke or frostbite from outside farm work
-vitamin deficiency, especially in winter
-house fire from wood stove, lantern or candles; or barn fire from drought, lightning or lantern (settlers had no smoke alarms, sprinklers or running water)

9 a)
-It wasn’t a concept familiar to Europeans at that time, and their religion did not forbid meat (except for devout Catholics who do not eat meat on Fridays).
-Settlers didn’t have the health and ethical concerns that make people today decide to become vegetarians. All the meat was by definition organic, so very healthy. Also, the animals had a nice life – they were all free-range. -Any settler who was a vegetarian because he or she felt that killing animals for their meat was morally wrong or who was allergic to meat would have had a very difficult time finding alternate protein sources.
-The settlers' diet relied very heavily on meat (and to a lesser extent eggs, dairy and fish) for protein, and the settlers didn’t have access to our modern-day meat substitutes such as nuts or soy.
-They ate rich, good quality food as an energy source for the hard physical labour, often outdoors.
-Their food source wasn’t very secure (no supermarket to go to), so they had to plan ahead and be careful to ensure sufficient quantity and quality year-round.
-Settlers would have been concerned about avoiding nutrient deficiencies such as Vitamin C deficiency, and tried for as much variety as possible.

10 a) After settlers (or perhaps a butcher) had slaughtered the animal, its carcass had to be divided into smaller units (often quarters) so it could be transported and/or stored more easily. Cuts made by saw or cleaver were usually made when the animal was first killed, whereas cuts with a knife usually indicate processing in the kitchen or damage from eating. Both butchers and cooks could have used cleaver-like instruments to divide the carcass into meal-size portions. The size of the portions would depend, of course, on the number of people eating and the kinds of dishes being prepared. For example, a large roast on a spit would involve fewer cuts than a bone that would have fit into a soup pot.
-bacterial infections such as anthrax and bovine tuberculosis
-barn fires caused by drought, lightning or lanterns
-extremely high or low temperatures
-predators such as wolves, fox and bear

Suzanne Needs, Treena Hein, Rory Mackay
Betty Biesenthal
1800 - 1950
Ontario, CANADA
© 2007, Davenport Centre - Heritage Hall. All Rights Reserved.

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