1. Yes

In the 1960s, the living and working conditions of artists became a political issue. This led to the formation of associations which ensure that their rights are recognized and that fees are paid when their art is exhibited or reproduced in a publication. In addition, the number of commercial galleries has grown steadily since the 1980s. Most of the Painting Project artists are represented by galleries.

2. True

In 1913, a desire to paint the Canadian landscape in a non-academic style brought together the artists Franklin Carmichael, Lawren Harris, A.Y. Jackson, Franz Johnstone, Arthur Lismer, J.E.H. Macdonald and F. H. Varley. The idea was to capture the Canadian spirit by portraying the rugged beauty of the northern wilderness. At first, the Group of Seven drew harsh criticism, but before long their bold depiction of distinctly Canadian subjects was recognized as the country’s first innovative art movement. The Group’s influence is still visible today in works by such artists as Jack Bishop and Kim Dorland.

3. e) All of the above

The Automatiste movement, which grew up around Paul-Émile Borduas, included several of his students, such as Marcel Barbeau, Jean-Paul Riopelle and Roger Fauteux, as well as painters Marcelle Ferron, Pierre Gauvreau, Fernand Leduc and Jean-Paul Mousseau, painter/dancer/choreographer Françoise Sullivan, writers Claude Gauvreau and Thérèse Renaud, dancers/choreographers Françoise Riopelle and Jeanne Renaud, designer Madeleine Arbour, actress Muriel Guilbault, photographer Maurice Perron and psychoanalyst Bruno Cormier.

4. c) Barnett Newman

Barnett Newman was an American painter and one of the leading practitioners of the New York School of Abstract Expressionism. His name is linked to the history of Canadian art because of the powerful influence of his 1959 visit to Emma Lake, Saskatchewan. The workshop he led there deeply marked the local art community, particularly the artists later known as the Regina Five. Newman also made headlines in 1989, when the National Gallery of Canada bought his painting Voices of Fire for $1.76 million.

5. c) Norval Morrisseau

First Nations peoples figure in many paintings from the days of New France and beyond. They appear in landscapes and genre scenes done by Europeans seeking to document the customs and environment of the New World, but also to capture its exotic flavour. Aboriginal art emerged in its contemporary form in 1945, and Norval Morrisseau was the first Native to gain professional renown. Today, First Nations artists enjoy widespread recognition at home and abroad.

6. f) All of the above

The subjects of current Canadian painting are multiple and varied. Only the religious history theme has fallen out of favour, due to the general secularization of Canadian society and the decline in church-sponsored commissions. The Painting Project illustrates the broad range of subject matter.

7. c) A painting done in a single colour

A monochrome painting is done with only one colour, but unity of colour does not exclude a range of shades. Monochrome or grisaille (shades of grey) paintings can offer a wealth of nuances. Some of The Painting Project artists, such as Thomas Chisholm, Daniel Hutchinson and Chris Kline, work with a monochrome or near monochrome palette.

8. b) A painting technique that plays with perspective to create the illusion of reality

Trompe l’oeil is an ancient pictorial technique that plays on the laws of perspective to create the illusion of reality. It is used by painters to create three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface. Several Painting Project artists employ this technique, including Anthony Burnham, Tammi Campbell, Mike Bayne and Dil Hildebrand.

9. a) A colour theory that says some colours advance while others recede

This theory and practice of colour was developed by the American painter Hans Hofmann, who observed that, when juxtaposed, some colours seem to make others either advance or recede. The push and pull between background and foreground creates a visual tension, giving the viewer a sense of depth and movement.

10. c) A trend in painting to focus on form and colour instead of representing the visible world

Abstraction was a major trend in 20th-century painting and sculpture. Abstract art may be completely non-representational or may represent subjects from the visible world in forms that make them unrecognizable.
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